Today Fiberglass Reinforced Thermosetting Plastic (" FRP") is being utilized in numerous commercial item applications, including the storage space and also transfer of harsh products or the handling of various other products in harsh environments. While FRP piping has a 65 -year history, it is considered a modern product material with several brand-new arising applications that capitalize on its corrosion resistance, strength-to-weight proportion, low upkeep and life cycle price. This paper reviews the background of FRP piping, present applications of FRP pipe and also emerging future technological advancements for new applications in oil storage as well as handling facilities.
Don't perplex FRP piping with common polycarbonate piping like PVC and also polyethylene. Those thermoplastic systems generally utilize non-reinforced extruded pipeline and also injection-molded installations and flanges. What stamina they have originates from the sheer mass of product. By comparison, FRP piping products are produced by winding processes that employ epoxy materials enhanced with continual glass filaments. The materials made use of are thermosetting i.e., they undergo irreversible chain reaction as they heal, resulting in superior temperature level abilities, while the filament support makes the piping elements mechanically far more capable than average non-reinforced thermoplastics. The outcome is boosted performance as well as lighter weight.
Also, don't perplex hand "lay-up" with device made FRP items. Hand lay-up manufacturers number in the thousands as well as include tiny stores which generally specialize in customer products, such as shower room vanities or pleasure boats. Nevertheless, there are relatively couple of device made pipe suppliers. These are large manufacturers that mass produce on-the-shelf or customized piping for petroleum, industrial, commercial as well as municipal applications for both domestic as well as abroad markets. Device made FRP can have a higher glass filling i. e., denser glass fiber filament/resin item which is more reproducible in a top quality regulated atmosphere. For that reason, this paper is limited to improvements made in device made pipe as well as fittings that will certainly have applications in the petroleum industry.
In the very early days, after Colonel Drake's exploration near Titusville, Ohio, in 1859, no pipeline was made use of in any way! This very early oil production was pumped directly into wood barrels for delivery. The initial pipes were made from timber as well as later on replaced with steel. Nevertheless, steel lines were swiftly rusted by the mix of salt water and sour sulfur crude. While FRP innovation was created during World War II, it was later on when the very first pipeline was made from FRP by using a glass fiber towel as well as material over a male mandrel by hand. This "hand lay-up" method was suitable for some chemical sector applications, however did not have the mix of stamina as well as cost-effectiveness necessary to change steel in the oil industry.
In the late 1940's centrifugal casting was the first maker made method to generate pipeline ideal for chemical and also commercial applications and oil field event lines. Next a filament winding procedure was created to manufacture pipe with tensioned glass fibers oriented to bear the combination of hoop as well as axial forces. Filament winding with a double angle construction called for layers of glass fibers in a close to axial orientation and also resulted in establishing high pressure (as much as 2,000 psi) down hole tubing for creating wells. Several of these earlier FRP tubing strings remain in service after more than 35 years of production.
In the 1960's an efficient high quantity continuous pipe production procedure was created for little diameter pipeline ranked for stress (approximately 450 psi). Huge scale use of this pipeline began in 1964 and was primarily mounted in 2 inch crude oil celebration lines.
In 1959 the initial country wide identified requirements and also examination methods for FRP pipe were published by the American Society for Testing Materials (" ASTM"). This very first requirements was ASTM D1694, Requirement Specification for Threads for Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermosetting Material Pipe and also developed by a team made up of agents from fiberglass pipeline suppliers, oil companies and also various other industries.
In 1968 the American Petroleum Institute (" API") published their initial FRP pipeline criterion. This initial API requirement was API 15LR, Specification for Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermosetting Material Line Pipe. Today ASTM and API publish many criteria, specs as well as examination approaches for FRP piping.
Today making use of FRP machine made piping has expanded from its original significant usage in oil area celebration lines to applications ranging from taking care of combustible and flammable liquids at retail customer facilities to sewage system and water mains in the community as well as commercial markets. Adhering to are examples of current FRP piping applications:
In the oil and also gas production industry, high pressure applications consist of up to 4,000 psi. In atmospheres as chilly as over the Arctic Circle to the deserts of the Middle East. FRP piping is made use of both above ground and also hidden as well as is located in systems from Manufacturing to Improved Oil Recuperation methods, consisting of hydraulic fracturing to salt water as well as CO2 injection.
Flammable and combustible liquid handling consists of the underground piping of car fuels, including high concentrations of alcohol (ethanol) and also aviation and aquatic fuels at most of the nation's retail and commercial lorry refueling centers. Because FRP piping was Underwriters Lab Listed in the late 1960's, over 150 million feet have actually been efficiently set up and also serve the country's motoring public.
While sewer and water drainage piping remains to be dominated by concrete, there are several locations where FRP is the preferred option. As an example, concrete pipeline wears away rapidly in sewer due to hydrogen sulfide strike. Hydrogen sulfide deteriorates the upper surface area of the pipeline as well as will ultimately cause a cave-in. FRP is unaffected by hydrogen sulfide or purging with caustic or hypochlorite to reduce sulfide smell. Consequently, FRP pipeline has actually been used as a lining in huge diameter (48 to 60 inches) concrete pipeline.
Building as well as design companies are now able to use computer software application developed to improve the style of FRP piping systems. The program includes fluid circulation evaluation, gas flow evaluation, totally free period analysis, thrust block design, chemical composition as well as installment details. The program makes it easy to step via complicated computations and analysis when designing a new FRP piping system or for repairing an existing FRP piping system.
The oil and gas production sector will be requiring greater pressure ranked as well as larger diameter piping to control rust problems in produced fluid lines (It is not uncommon to "produce" and treat seven barrels of water for every barrel of petroleum drew out of the ground). In addition to fixing deterioration problems, FRP piping can be designed with a flame resistant additive to decrease fire spread for non-critical locations or in crucial locations, be coated with an intumescent paint or insulated with an intumescent product i. e., the paint and also layer expands to form fireproof foam insulation. This latter system will preserve the utility of the piping for a minimum of three hours under flow problems. FRP firewater protection piping is fixing weight issues when designing overseas oil manufacturing platforms. Weight savings in the style of a platform can save the owner from $2.00 to $4.00 per extra pound in building expenses by decreasing the weight of the assistance framework (e.g., savings approximately 750 lots). In locations categorized as dangerous, FRP piping can be made with conductive fibers, co-mingled with the glass fibers, to provide electrical conductivity of the material to ground the system and also stop possible build-up of static cost.
Trenchless piping is a swiftly growing modern technology where micro-tunneling for brand-new piping and also slip-lining for restoring existing piping do not disrupt roadbeds or other aboveground frameworks.
While passage boring has actually been used on big passage projects, micro-tunneling is a brand-new application for trench-less piping. In micro-tunneling the FRP pipeline is hydraulically jacked and also presses the cutter head through the substrata. It takes thousands of tons of jacking pressure to push big size piping ranges of numerous feet. As an example, 18 inch size FRP pipe can be jacked at stress as much as 90 lots as well as 9 foot size FRP pipeline at stress as much as 1,750 lots.
In the past, stainless steel sleeves have actually been utilized as support around concrete pipeline joints to withstand hydraulic jacking stress. However, FRP sleeve joints are verifying to be an affordable replacement for stainless-steel made use of in concrete pipeline jacking.
FRP pipe and also joint systems are confirming to be even more inexpensive than their concrete equivalent due to the smoother outside surface and lighter weight. These features significantly decrease the jacking pressure required as well as allow jacking longer runs than concrete, minimizing setup costs and time.
Slip-lining is a trench-less method of fixing up an existing pipe with a minimum of excavation. New as well as fixed up sewage system and also water drainage pipelines are no more limited to reasonably tiny diameter FRP slip-lining approaches. Centrifugal cast FRP pipe technology has actually progressed as well as produces a machine-made pipe with close outside diameter tolerances in diameters up to 120 inches. The light weight and smooth outer surface allows jacking the pipe inside an existing pipeline, hence restoring leaking concrete drain pipes. This system of rehabilitation lessens the jacking stress required to press the FRP pipe with the existing concrete pipeline as well as is done also as sewer circulation proceeds. As an example, a trench-less job is underway to restore 6,000 feet of 102 inch sewage system in Los Angeles with a minimum of excavation by utilizing nine foot diameter FRP pipe.
Chemical handling normally entails piping direct exposure to such chemicals such as acetone, methylene chloride, hydrochloric acid, ethylene dichloride, phenol, toluene, xylene, ethyl acetate and also methyl acetate. Specialized steels such as titanium are typically utilized for resistance to such chemicals, however are excessively expensive. Nonetheless, resin option such as furan based products are extremely solvent resistant and also cost-efficient.
Traditionally oil marketing facilities made use of steel piping which was low in price as well as satisfied the 2 hr 2,000 ° F fire code need for the handling of flammable as well as flammable products. While retail facilities have actually adapted to new product improvements e. g., FRP underground tanks and piping as well as adaptable adapters, distribution terminal designers and service providers have actually been slow-moving to apply non-steel innovations.
Following are several locations where the incurable center developer ought to think about FRP piping applications:
Underwriters Lab has actually UL 971 Listed FRP piping for combustible and also flammable service in diameters of 2, 3, 4 and 6 inches. The 2012 version of NFPA 30 references UL 971 as well as permits making use of these FRP pipeline sizes in distribution terminals. While incurable developers choose to locate steel piping aboveground for simplicity of ecological screening i.e., visual assessment as opposed to routine pressure testing, the Attire Fire Code revised their rule in 1995 and also now require the installation of piping underground. Below ground steel piping will call for cathodic protection systems and its fundamental periodic screening need. As a result, an economical alternative to below ground steel piping and cathodic protection is FRP pipeline constant with UL Listed diameters.
Contamination prevention-related jobs consist of containment, recycling, release reduction and also sewage therapy. Concrete piping is not ideal for the handling of oil associated effluent due to the high leakage price in the pipe joining methods offered and also steel piping will rust underground. Huge diameter FRP piping is available as much as twelve feet in size as well as created with leak cost-free joints. As explained over, trench-less brand-new or slip-lining rehabilitation piping approaches are cost effective and also offer a minimum of disruption in operations.
Today it is coming to be extra common to blend motor fuel additives at the terminal. Much of these additives are harsh to standard carbon steel. With mixing systems located at the truck packing rack, below ground piping is common and provides itself to FRP piping.
Scale from interior rust of steel piping in a firewater defense system is recognized to connect nozzles and also sprinkler heads. To battle the effects of deterioration and internal scaling, metallic systems call for continual maintenance. Also after that, it is questionable just how much of a metallic system remains in a reliable operating condition at an offered moment. FRP fire resistant material systems have actually been developed and are confirming to be budget-friendly in numerous fire defense applications.
Hebei Weitong FRP Co., Ltd. is a first-class fiberglass manufacturing and marketing enterprise in China, which is specialized in fiberglass storage tanks and fiberglass reinforced mortar pipework and owns more than 20 national patents including fiberglass devices of coal chemical industry, aeration mixing nozzles, papermaking industry towers, large-diameter flue duct preparation devices and jacketed fermenters.
Product specifications: Storage tanks below DN25000mm and DN15mm-12000mm series fiberglass pipes, and the annual production capacity of storage tanks is 10,000 tons and that of pipes is 20,000 tons.